March 29, 2023

Feast of San Bertoldo di Calabria

San Bertoldo di Calabria, ora pro nobis
March 29th is the feast of St. Berthold of Calabria, 12th-century French crusader, mystic, hermit, ascetic, founder and first prior general of the Carmelite Order. While defending Antioch from the Saracens, he had a vision of angels carrying his fallen brethren to heaven. After the siege, he established a small hermit colony in Palestine and built a chapel on Mount Carmel dedicated to Our Lady, founding the Carmelite Order in 1155. He served as prior for forty-five years until his death in 1195.

In celebration, we’re posting a prayer to St. Berthold of Calabria. The accompanying photo comes courtesy of Father Eugene Carrella. The holy card is part of Father Carrella’s impressive collection of religious artifacts. Evviva San Bertoldo di Calabria!

Prayer to St. Berthold of Calabria

Grant, we beseech Thee, almighty God, that the examples of St. Berthold may effectually move us to reform our lives; that while we celebrate his feast, we may also imitate his actions. Look upon our weakness, almighty God, and since the burden of our own deeds weighs heavily upon us, may the glorious intercession of St. Berthold protect us. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

Meridiunalata XXXVI: 'Duje' by Cav. Charles Sant'Elia

Reprinted from Cav. Charles Sant'Elia's Meridiunalata / Southernade, an evocative bilingual collection of poetry written in Neapolitan and translated to English between 1989 and 2010.*


Pígliate chist’ammore
Ca te rummane ncanna,
Cávera e líqueta,
Ca sciulia e passa
Ca te cade nzì ‘o vellícolo,
Acchiáppate a stu pilo ‘e bene
Tujo ca priesto a matina
Te fa schiattà cuntenta,
Ca te spremme ‘e carne,
Ca stracqua ‘a sera te fa cadè.


Take this love
That leaves you
Warm and liquid in your neck,
That slips and passes
That falls all the way to your navel,
Grasp this bit of your
Love that early in the morning
Makes you rage happily,
That wrings out your flesh,
That tired in the evening makes you fall.

* Self-published in 2010, Meridiunalata / Southernade is a treasury of poems gleaned from Cav. Sant'Elia's previous collections (Nchiuso dint''o presente, 'A cuntrora, and 'O pino e l'éllera), which were circulated among friends in New York City and Naples. Special thanks to Cav. Sant'Elia for allowing us to reprint his poetry and translations.

A Prayer for Nashville, Tennessee

San Sebastiano, ora pro nobis
Our thoughts and prayers go out to the victims of the horrific mass shooting at the Covenant School in Nashville, Tennessee, Monday morning and their families. May San Giuseppe, San Sebastiano, and Santa Giovanna di Chantal watch over you.

Prayer for the victims

Loving God, welcome into your arms the victims of violence and terrorism. Comfort their families and all who grieve for them. Help us in our fear and uncertainty, and bless us with the knowledge that we are secure in your love. Strengthen all those who work for peace, and may the peace the world cannot give reign in our hearts. Amen.

March 28, 2023

The Constantinian Order Remembers Prince Ferdinand of Bourbon-Two Sicilies in New York City

On Passion Sunday, some two dozen Knights and Dames of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St. George (SMOCSG) and Royal Order of Francis I attended Mass in Mantle at St. Vincent Ferrer Church in Manhattan in memory of the 15th Anniversary of the Death of the late Grand Master, His Royal Highness, Prince Ferdinando Maria Andrea Alfonso Marco of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
Mass was followed by a luncheon at the Columbus Citizens Foundation with H.E. Don Francesco Ruspoli, Prince of Cerveteri, Grand Chancellor of the Dynastic Orders and a member of the Royal Deputation. The Prince was accompanied by his wife H.E. Donna Angelica Ruspoli, Princess of Cerveteri.

During the Pranzo Costantiniano, the Grand Chancellor bestowed the prestigious Bronze Benemerenti Medal of the Constantinian Order upon Professor Gaetano Cipolla, President of Arba Sicula, for his exemplary work in promoting Sicilian culture and language in these United States.

As part of the Delegation’s mission to promote Catholic education in North America, the Order generously presented a check for $5,000 to the Dominican Sisters of Mary, Mother of the Eucharist, of Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Feast of San Giovanni da Capestrano

San Giovanni da Capestrano, ora pro nobis
March 28th is the Feast of San Giovanni da Capestrano, Franciscan friar and priest. Patron Saint of military chaplains and jurists, he is also the protector of Capestrano, a commune in the Province of L'Aquila (Abruzzo), where he was born in 1386. 
San Giovanni is revered as the "soldier saint" for his role in the valiant defense of Belgrade against the Ottoman Turks in 1456. With his fiery sermons, he helped raise a peasant army and assisted John Hunyadi, the heroic White Knight of Wallachia, in breaking the siege and routing the invaders. 
In celebration, I'm posting a Prayer in honor of St. John of Capistrano. Evviva San Giovanni!
Prayer to St. John of Capistrano
Lord, you raised up Saint John of Capistrano to give your people comfort in their trials. May your Church enjoy unending peace and be secure in your protection. We ask this through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen

Palm Sunday at Our Lady of Sorrows Church in Jersey City, New Jersey

March 27, 2023

New Music — Scarlatti: Cantate Da Camera

New music that may be of interest to our readers.

Scarlatti: Cantate Da Camera performed by Lucile Richardot and Philippe Grisvard

Label: Audax Records
Release Date: January 20, 2023
Audio CD: $18.72
Number of Discs: 1

Available at

Read description

Photo of the Week: Santa Veronica with Sudarium by Francesco Mochi in St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican

Photo by New York Scugnizzo

March 26, 2023

Passion Sunday

Angel holding the Sudarium, Vatican
The fifth Sunday of Lent is Passion Sunday and marks the beginning of Passiontide, the last two weeks of Lent. The first of the two weeks is known as Passion Week, and the second as Holy Week. During this period all sacred images (statues, icons, etc.), except for the Stations of the Cross, are veiled with violet cloth, signifying Christ’s hiding from the Jews (John 8:59) until he entered Jerusalem (commemorated on Palm Sunday). The Júdica Me psalm and Glória Patri doxology are omitted from the Masses for the same reason. The images will remain covered until the Glória is sung on Holy Saturday, which signals the ending of Lent and the beginning of Eastertide. During this solemn stretch, meditation on the Passion of Christ (the suffering and death of our Lord) is to be our principal point of focus. 

In celebration, I’m posting the anthem and prayer for Passiontide from Blessed Be God: A Complete Catholic Prayer Book by Very Rev. Charles J. Callan, OP., S.T.M. and Very Rev. John A. McHugh, OP., S.T.M (Preserving Christian Publications, 2010). The accompanying photo of the Angel holding St. Veronica's Veil by Cosimo Fancelli was taken during my 2007 visit to the Ponte Sant' Angelo (Bridge of Angels) in the Eternal City. On this day in Rome, the Sudarium, or Veil of Veronica, used to wipe the Volto Santo (Holy Face) of Jesus while He marched the Via Dolorossa (Sorrowful Path) to Golgotha is briefly revealed for veneration. 

A Prayer for Passiontide 

Ant. It behooves us to glory in the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, in Whom is our salvation, life, and resurrection, by Whom we are saved and delivered. 
V. Spare, O Lord, spare Thy people. 
R. Whom Thou hast redeemed with Thy Precious Blood. 

Let us pray 
O God, Whom to love above all is righteousness, multiply in us the gifts of Thy ineffable grace; and since Thou hast given us, in the death of Thy Son, to hope for those things which we believe grant us in the Resurrection of the same to attain the end to which we aspire. Who liveth and reigneth forever and ever. Amen.

Pietro Golia Una Vita ControCorrente

Upcoming event from the Campania Chapter of Filitalia International in Napoli.

Martedì 28/03 alle ore 17.30

March 25, 2023

A Prayer for the Victims of the Deadly Tornado and Storms that Devastated Mississippi

San Medardo, ora pro nobis
Our thoughts and prayers go out to the victims of the deadly tornado and storms that devastated rural Mississippi overnight. We are deeply saddened by the loss of life, the suffering and the destruction. May San Medardo, Santa Rosalia, San Marciano, and Santa Eulàlia, protect and watch over you.

Prayer to St. Medard

Saint Medard, patron saint for protection against bad storms, we ask you to intercede for us during the storms of our lives as well as the storms in nature. Protect our families and our homes. We pray for assistance for the victims of hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, and other natural disasters. Loving God, send in more helpers, and multiply resources and supplies for the aid of those in need. You calmed the storm on the Sea of Galilee; deliver us from the storms that are raging around us now. Amen

Feast of the Annunciation

The Feast of the Annunciation and the Mystery of the Incarnation, recalls when the Archangel Gabriel visited the Virgin Mary and announced she would conceive a Child by the Holy Spirit. It is also the traditional day to make your total consecration to Our Lord Jesus Christ through the Blessed Virgin Mary. 
In celebration, I'm posting The Angelus, a devotional prayer honoring the Blessed Mother's role in the Incarnation, which should be repeated three times daily (morning, midday and evening). The accompanying photo of the Annunciation was taken at St. Francis of Paola Church (219 Conselyea St.) in Williamsburg, Brooklyn.
The Angelus

Prayer at dawn:

The Angel of the Lord declared unto Mary:
And she conceived by the Holy Spirit

Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

Prayer at noon:

Behold the handmaid of the Lord:
Be it done unto me according to Thy Word.
Hail Mary…

Prayer at twilight:

And the Word was made flesh:
And dwelt among us.
Hail Mary…

Conclusion after each prayer time:

Pray for us, O Holy Mother of God,
That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

Let us pray: Pour forth, we beseech Thee, O Lord, Thy grace into our hearts; that we, to whom the incarnation of Christ, Thy Son, was made known by the message of an angel, may by His Passion and Cross be brought to the glory of His Resurrection, through the same Christ Our Lord. Amen

Feast of the Madonna di Picciano

Madonna di Picciano, ora pro nobis
March 25th is the Feast of the Madonna di Picciano and the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, protectress of the Santuario della Madonna overlooking the nearby hamlet of Picciano in Matera. Once guarded by the Knights Templar and later the Knights of Malta, the ancient sanctuary continues to draw pilgrims attracted to the miraculous image of the Blessed Mother, despite its suppression during the Napoleonic age. In celebration, I'm posting a Prayer for the Feast of the Annunciation. The accompanying photo of the sanctuary’s wooden processional statue comes courtesy of Andrew Giordano. Evviva Maria!

Prayer for the Feast of the Annunciation

O God, Who wast pleased that the eternal Word, according to the declaration of the angel, should take flesh in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary: Give to our humble petitions; and grant that we, who believe her to be truly the Mother of God, may be helped by her prayers. Through the same Lord Jesus Christ, Thy Son, Who liveth and reigneth with Thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end. Amen.

Holy Week at Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Shrine in East Harlem, New York

March 24, 2023

Feast of San Gabriele Arcangelo

San Gabriele Arcangelo, ora pro nobis
March 24th is the Feast of San Gabriele Arcangelo, the exalted messenger of God. He is the patron saint of postmen, diplomats, messengers and telecommunication workers. 
In celebration, I’m posting a Prayer to Archangel Gabriel. The accompanying photo of The Annunciation by Luca Giordano was taken at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Evviva San Gabriele!
A Prayer to the Archangel Gabriel
O Blessed Archangel Gabriel, we beseech thee, do thou intercede for us at the throne of divine Mercy in our present necessities, that as thou didst announce to Mary the mystery of the Incarnation, so through thy prayers and patronage in heaven we may obtain the benefits of the same, and sing the praise of God forever in the land of the living. Amen.

Feast of Sant’Aldemaro da Capua

The Abbey of Monte Cassino
March 24th is the Feast Day of Sant’Aldemaro il Saggio (St. Aldemar the Wise), Abbot and miracle worker. Born in Capua, as a young boy he was sent to the Abbey of Monte Cassino, where he became a Benedictine monk. Renowned for his wisdom and holiness, he was appointed rector of the Monastery of San Lorenzo di Capua, which was founded by the Lombard Princess Aloara (d.992). Performing many miracles, Sant’Aldemaro was eventually recalled to Monte Cassino by his superiors, which caused a bitter dispute between the Abbot Aligerno (949-86) and the Princess. Wanting no part in the quarrel, Sant’Aldemaro moved on to Boviano in Molise, where he miraculously escaped a crossbow attack by a man outraged by his brother’s generous donation of land to the Saint. Relocating again, Sant’Aldemaro settled in Bocchignano, Abruzzo, where he founded the Monastery of Santa Eufemia. Traveling around the Diocese of Chieti preaching and performing miracles, he built several more religious houses before dying in 1080.

In celebration, I’m posting a prayer to St. Aldemar the Wise. The accompanying photo was taken during my 2007 pilgrimage to the Abbey of Monte Cassino in Southern Italy. Sant'Aldemaro da Capua, ora pro nobis.

Prayer to St. Aldemar the Wise

Grant, we beseech Thee, almighty God, that the examples of St. Aldemar the Wise may effectually move us to reform our lives; that while we celebrate his festival, we may also imitate his actions. Look upon our weakness, almighty God, and since the burden of our own deeds weighs heavily upon us, may the glorious intercession of St. Aldemar protect us. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Annunciation at Our Lady of Sorrows Church in Jersey City, New Jersey

March 23, 2023

Feast of San Giuseppe Oriol

San Giuseppe Oriol, ora pro nobis
March 23rd is the Feast of St. Joseph Oriol, Priest, Mystic, Ascetic, and Wonderworker. Born on November 23, 1650 to a poor family from Barcelona, Spain, his education was entrusted to a local parish priest. Thanks to some benefactors, he attended university and obtained a doctorate in theology at the age of twenty-three. He was ordained a priest in 1676.

One day while sitting for a sumptuous dinner, an invisible force stayed his hand and kept him from partaking in the meal. Seeing this as a divine warning to fast and abstain from creature comforts, St. Joseph Oriol engaged in a lifetime of rigid asceticism and mortifications.

Seized suddenly with an ardent desire to one day be able to die a martyr, he left for Rome to offer himself as a missionary to evangelize the infidels. However, while on the pilgrimage, he fell ill, and only a vision of the Blessed Mother convinced him to return to Barcelona and strengthen the Faith back home.

Dedicating himself to helping the poor and sick, he led a very active apostolate, ministering successfully to soldiers and children. Renowned for his many miracles, St. Joseph Oriol cured the sick, blind, deaf, and lame.

Realizing his death was near, he received extreme unction and Viaticum. During his last three days, he subsisted solely on the Eucharist. Announcing the end had arrived, on March 23, 1702 he requested the Stabat Mater to be recited and exhaled his last breath.

In celebration, we’re posting a prayer to St. Joseph Oriol. The accompanying photo comes courtesy of Father Eugene Carrella. The holy card is part of Father Carrella’s impressive collection of religious artifacts. Evviva San Giuseppe Oriol!

Prayer to St. Joseph Oriol

Grant, we beseech Thee, almighty God, that the examples of St. Joseph Oriol may effectually move us to reform our lives; that while we celebrate his feast, we may also imitate his actions. Look upon our weakness, almighty God, and since the burden of our own deeds weighs heavily upon us, may the glorious intercession of St. Joseph Oriol protect us. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

Traditional Holy Week at Our Lady of Sorrows Church in Jersey City, New Jersey

March 22, 2023

Feast of Sant'Isidoro l'Agricoltore

Sant'Isidoro l'agricoltore, ora pro nobis
March 22nd is the Feast of Sant’Isidoro (c.1075-1130), lay farmer, ascetic and miracle-worker. He is the patron saint of farmers, day laborers, agriculture, Madrid, Spain, and Giarre, a commune in the Metropolitan City of Catania. In celebration, we’re posting a prayer to Saint Isidore the Farmer. The accompanying photo, courtesy of Anthony Scillia, was taken in the Chiesa di San Michele Arcangelo in Nicosia, Sicily. The painting depicts the saint miraculously making water gush from stones as angels plow the arid fields with oxen. Evviva Sant' Isidoro l'agricoltore!

Prayer to St. Isidore the Farmer

Good Saint, we are told that your devotion to the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was so great that you would rise before it was light in order to be able to attend Mass before beginning your work in the fields. Obtain for us, we pray you, some of that loving devotion to the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. There it is that the fruits of our farm labor, bread and wine, are brought and offered to God by the priest. Then, in the consecration, Christ Himself, Body and Blood, Soul and Divinity, becomes present on our altars under the appearances of this same bread and wine. And in what was the altar bread, He comes to us to be the very food of our souls. If we deeply realize the value and beauty of Holy Mass, we will be very happy to attend as often as we possibly can.

Help us to understand that in the Mass we offer ourselves to God with Christ by the hands of the priest. There we can bring to God all that we do, and offer it to Him in union with His Holy Sacrifice. The oftener we do this now, the happier we shall be hereafter. Good Saint Isidore, bless us and our labors, that we may some day reap the reward of good works with you in heaven. Amen.

Prayer Source: Rural Life Prayerbook by Alban J. Dachauer, S.J., National Catholic Rural Life Conference,1956

Fourteen Years and Counting

“Yet such is oft the course of deeds that move the wheels of the world: small hands do them because they must, while the eyes of the great are elsewhere.” ~ J.R.R. Tolkien [1]

It doesn’t seem all that long ago, but fourteen years to the day, I hit publish, and Il Regno [2] was born. It was never my intention to be a blogger, but the disconnect with our community’s ideologically driven self-appointed leaders (both on the Left and what passes as the Right) compelled me to begin writing about the various subjects I felt were not getting the attention they deserved. As it turned out, it struck a chord with many people who feel just as disaffected and marginalized in modern society, particularly regarding religion.

For the most part, the experience has been very rewarding. I've learned a lot and met a number of interesting people. Forging lasting friendships with some, we’ve created a small but tight-knit community of fellow travelers to help preserve and celebrate our faith and culture in the face of pervasive Godlessness and crushing assimilation.

Detail of a mosaic of Christ Crowning
King Ruggero II, Martorana, Palermo
Dissident Voice

"Those who think they have but one life to live can do little good that will outlast it. Man is distinguished from the animal by his reason, and the distinction of man’s reasoning is that it can discover and work toward goals that are beyond the brief extent of his own animal life." ~ Otto Von Habsburg [3]

As expected, many people have a problem with (or simply don’t understand) my political views. They are genuinely bewildered by, and sometimes hostile to, my anti-democratic, anti-egalitarian, and staunch monarchist leanings. Sadly, like most people, Italian Americans tend to dismiss the idea of monarchy out of hand and increasingly identify with Americanism in all its discordant manifestations. [4] 

Thanks to assimilation, not only have they abandoned their ethnocultural particularism for a generic Italian American identity, those even more far-gone have opted for a generic American identity, which in today’s ever-shrinking materialist world means little more than being a consumer and tax-payer. Aside from quaint regional accents, it appears that the most significant distinctions between the majority of Americans today are the color of their local sports-ball team’s jerseys and which Tammany-style political party they blindly follow. There are holdouts, but fewer every day.

Considering the abhorrent state of American politics, especially these past few years, I’m taken aback by the number of people who still buy into the lies and corruption. Democracy is a farce; it is a false god propped up by the corrupt fourth estate and Janus-faced political elites complicit in deluding the masses. In post-Christian America, it has evolved into a ungodly state religion whose trite tenets of representation, freedom of speech, equality, etcetera, are constantly being trampled on by its soi-disant adherents to benefit a bloated totalitarian oligarchy.

Bring back the old national demarcations
Up the Devolution!

"Liberty, on the other hand, dominates in diversity—wherever nations and men differ. That applies to their history, their speech and race, to their customs and habits, their art and their religion. Here there cannot be too many colors on the palette." ~ Ernst Jünger [5]

Another area of contention with some is my stance on a free and independent Southern Italy. Though slowly changing, it’s been my experience that Italian Americans overwhelmingly tend to be, if somewhat superficially, pro-Italy. Despite il Bel Paese’s betrayal of our ancestors, my partiality for the restoration of the pre-unification states and borders is anathema to many. [6]

To be clear, being pro-separatist doesn’t mean I dislike Northern Italians (or anyone else, for that matter). If truth be told, I greatly admire pre-unification Northern Italy, the same way I admire pre-revolutionary France, pre-Reformation England, et al. While they all take a back seat to Naples, some of my fondest memories were exploring the historic promenades and ancient churches of Rome, Venice and Florence. I just think our respective homelands would have been better served if they had remained politically independent of each other. This is undoubtedly true for the peoples of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, who still suffer greatly from Italian unification.

Sink or Swim

"The traditions of each people … are common treasures that all of us, brothers of the same chosen family, must keep with love." ~ Francisco Elías de Tejada [7]

In short, the goal is to revel in our differences and oppose at every opportunity the cultural leveling and social engineering orchestrated by the global elites and their soulless acolytes. Needless to say, if a true federative solution cannot be realized in Italy I’d prefer a more amicable dissolution like the partition of Czechoslovakia in 1992 as opposed to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia that same year. Obviously, it is all meaningless if we merely create several new slavish puppet states that continue emulating the same self-destructive policies under the tyranny of the European Union. This is a conversation for another day.

As unrealistic or quixotic as it may sound, especially when one considers how far gone and deracinated the American diaspora already is, and the fact that so few are actually concerned with saving anything other than some old family recipes, I want to see the preservation of the remnant of our sundry communities in the same vein as the Amish or Hasidim do in our own self-reliant enclaves, ghettoes and Little Italys across the country. 

This shouldn’t be a controversial or problematic statement, but I unapologetically love my own culture and heritage and I want to see it survive, nay thrive. This doesn’t mean I can’t enjoy or appreciate others—I do. It also doesn’t mean I have to like or respect them all—I don’t. Some, such as the culture of death and throwaway culture currently afflicting the unravelling West, are clearly abhorrent and should be emphatically rejected.

Viribus Unitus [8]

“For behold! the storm comes, and now all friends should gather together, lest each singly be destroyed.” ~ J.R.R. Tolkien [9]

Naturally, I stand with all like-minded peoples who uphold the perennial principles of Faith, family and culture in the defense of Christendom. I’d much rather associate with a Catholic Burgundian légitimiste or Andalusian carlista than a Sicilian Marxist or Neapolitan atheist any day of the week. I have more in common with a Venetian or Roman looking to restore La Serenissima [10] and the Papal States than any Southern Italian with Jacobin, Republican or other revolutionary inclinations. Simply being Duosiciliano isn’t enough.

Dios, Patria, Fueros y Rey [13]
Pietas [11]

"The real struggle in which we are involved is more and more clearly that between the powers of destruction and the powers of life. In that fight the fighters for justice stand shoulder to shoulder like the chivalry of old." ~ Ernst Jünger [12]

Having said all that, as much as I want to see a return to Catholic federative monarchy in Southern Italy and elsewhere, including these United States, I don’t pretend it will ever happen in my lifetime. The disordered state of modern society, the weakness of the Royal Families and their loyal supporters, and the current apostasy within the Church hierarchy have ensured this. However, this does not mean we traditionalists abnegate our time-honored duties and responsibilities to achieve these goals. To the contrary, we are duty-bound by our Faith and honor to proselytize and do all we can to keep the flames of tradition burning until the natural order of church and state is restored. Viva Cristo Re!

~ Giovanni di Napoli, March 21st, The Feasts of Bl. Maria Candida of the Eucharist and San Benedetto da Nursia


[1] Fellowship of the Ring, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1994, p.274

[2] The blog was originally published in 2009 under the title Magna GRECE

[3] "Divine Right of Minorities," Modern Age: A Conservative Review, Summer 1958, p.284

[4] In case you didn’t realize already, this is one of the reasons why we have the “Dissident Voice” descriptor in front of our title.

[5] The Peace, Henry Regency Co., 1984, p. 61

[6] This is another reason why we have the "Dissident Voice" descriptor in front of our title.

[7] La Monarchia Tradizionale, Controcorrente Edizioni, 2001, pp. 24-26

[8] Latin motto of Emperor Franz Joseph, meaning "with united forces."

[9] The Two Towers, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1994, p.501

[10] Nickname for Venice, meaning “Most Serene.”

[11] Pietas, Latin, the ancient Roman personification of familial affection, patriotism, and piety

[12] The Peace, Henry Regency Co., 1984, p. 77

[13] Carlist motto meaning "God, Country, Privileges and King"